Class: Msf::EncodedPayload

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Framework::Offspring
Defined in:
lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb

Overview

This class wrappers an encoded payload buffer and the means used to create one.

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Attributes included from Framework::Offspring

#framework

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(framework, pinst, reqs) ⇒ EncodedPayload

Creates an instance of an EncodedPayload.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 32

def initialize(framework, pinst, reqs)
  self.framework = framework
  self.pinst     = pinst
  self.reqs      = reqs
  self.space     = reqs['Space']
end

Instance Attribute Details

#encodedObject

The encoded version of the raw payload plus the NOP sled if one was generated.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 494

def encoded
  @encoded
end

#encoderObject

The encoder that was used



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 506

def encoder
  @encoder
end

#iterationsObject

The number of encoding iterations used



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 514

def iterations
  @iterations
end

#nopObject

The NOP generator that was used



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 510

def nop
  @nop
end

#nop_sledObject

The NOP sled itself



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 502

def nop_sled
  @nop_sled
end

#nop_sled_sizeObject

The size of the NOP sled



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 498

def nop_sled_size
  @nop_sled_size
end

#payload=(value) ⇒ Object (writeonly, protected)

:nodoc:



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 525

def payload=(value)
  @payload = value
end

#pinstObject (protected)

The payload instance used to generate the payload



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 534

def pinst
  @pinst
end

#rawObject

The raw version of the payload



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 489

def raw
  @raw
end

#reqsObject (protected)

The requirements used for generation



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 538

def reqs
  @reqs
end

#spaceObject

The maximum number of bytes acceptable for the encoded payload



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 518

def space
  @space
end

Class Method Details

.create(pinst, reqs = {}) ⇒ Object

This method creates an encoded payload instance and returns it to the caller.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 20

def self.create(pinst, reqs = {})
  # Create the encoded payload instance
  p = EncodedPayload.new(pinst.framework, pinst, reqs)

  p.generate(reqs['Raw'])

  return p
end

Instance Method Details

#archObject

An array containing the architecture(s) that this payload was made to run on



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 471

def arch
  if pinst
    pinst.arch
  end
end

#encodeObject

Scans for a compatible encoder using ranked precedence and populates the encoded attribute.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 131

def encode
  # Get the minimum number of nops to use
  min = (reqs['MinNops'] || 0).to_i
  min = 0 if reqs['DisableNops']

  # If the exploit needs the payload to be encoded, we need to run the list of
  # encoders in ranked precedence and try to encode with them.
  if needs_encoding
    encoders = pinst.compatible_encoders

    # Make sure the encoder name from the user has the same String#encoding
    # as the framework's list of encoder names so we can compare them later.
    # This is important for when we get input from RPC.
    if reqs['Encoder']
      reqs['Encoder'] = reqs['Encoder'].encode(framework.encoders.keys[0].encoding)
    end

    # If the caller had a preferred encoder, use this encoder only
    if ((reqs['Encoder']) and (preferred = framework.encoders[reqs['Encoder']]))
      encoders = [ [reqs['Encoder'], preferred] ]
    elsif (reqs['Encoder'])
      wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Failed to find preferred encoder #{reqs['Encoder']}")
      raise NoEncodersSucceededError, "Failed to find preferred encoder #{reqs['Encoder']}"
    end

    encoders.each { |encname, encmod|
      self.encoder = encmod.new
      self.encoded = nil

      # If the encoding is requested by an exploit check compatibility
      # options first of all. For the 'generic/none' encoder compatibility
      # options don't apply.
      if (reqs['Exploit'] &&
          !reqs['Exploit'].compatible?(self.encoder) &&
          encname !~ /generic\/none/)
        wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Encoder #{encoder.refname} doesn't match the exploit Compat options",
          'core', LEV_1)
        next
      end

      # If there is an encoder type restriction, check to see if this
      # encoder matches with what we're searching for.
      if ((reqs['EncoderType']) and
          (self.encoder.encoder_type.split(/\s+/).include?(reqs['EncoderType']) == false))
        wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Encoder #{encoder.refname} is not a compatible encoder type: #{reqs['EncoderType']} != #{self.encoder.encoder_type}",
          'core', LEV_1)
        next
      end

      # If the exploit did not explicitly request a kind of encoder and
      # the current encoder has a manual ranking, then it should not be
      # considered as a valid encoder.  A manual ranking tells the
      # framework that an encoder must be explicitly defined as the
      # encoder of choice for an exploit.
      if ((reqs['EncoderType'].nil?) and
          (reqs['Encoder'].nil?) and
          (self.encoder.rank == ManualRanking))
        wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Encoder #{encoder.refname} is manual ranked and was not defined as a preferred encoder.",
          'core', LEV_1)
        next
      end

      # If the caller explicitly requires register preservation, make sure
      # that the module in question can handle it. This is mostly used by
      # the stage encoder path.
      if (reqs['ForceSaveRegisters'] and
          reqs['EncoderOptions'] and
          (reqs['EncoderOptions']['SaveRegisters'].to_s.length > 0) and
          (! self.encoder.can_preserve_registers?))
        wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Encoder #{encoder.refname} does not preserve registers and the caller needs #{reqs['EncoderOptions']['SaveRegisters']} preserved.",
          'core', LEV_1)
        next
      end

      # Import the datastore from payload (and likely exploit by proxy)
      self.encoder.share_datastore(pinst.datastore)

      # If we have any encoder options, import them into the datastore
      # of the encoder.
      if (reqs['EncoderOptions'])
        self.encoder.datastore.import_options_from_hash(reqs['EncoderOptions'])
      end

      # Validate the encoder to make sure it's properly initialized.
      begin
        self.encoder.validate
      rescue ::Exception
        wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Failed to validate encoder #{encoder.refname}: #{$!}",
          'core', LEV_1)
        next
      end

      # Tell the encoder how much space is available
      self.encoder.available_space = self.space

      eout = self.raw.dup

      next_encoder = false

      # Try encoding with the current encoder
      #
      # NOTE: Using more than one iteration may cause successive iterations to switch
      # to using a different encoder.
      #
      1.upto(self.iterations) do |iter|
        err_start = "#{pinst.refname}: iteration #{iter}"

        begin
          eout = self.encoder.encode(eout, reqs['BadChars'], nil, pinst.platform)
        rescue EncodingError
          wlog("#{err_start}: Encoder #{encoder.refname} failed: #{$!}", 'core', LEV_1)
          dlog("#{err_start}: Call stack\n#{$@.join("\n")}", 'core', LEV_3)
          next_encoder = true
          break

        rescue ::Exception => e
          elog("Broken encoder #{encoder.refname}", error: e)
          next_encoder = true
          break
        end

        # Check to see if we have enough room for the minimum requirements
        if ((reqs['Space']) and (reqs['Space'] < eout.length + min))
          wlog("#{err_start}: Encoded payload version is too large (#{eout.length} bytes) with encoder #{encoder.refname}",
            'core', LEV_1)
          next_encoder = true
          break
        end

        ilog("#{err_start}: Successfully encoded with encoder #{encoder.refname} (size is #{eout.length})",
          'core', LEV_0)
      end

      next if next_encoder

      self.encoded = eout
      break
    }

    # If the encoded payload is nil, raise an exception saying that we
    # suck at life.
    if (self.encoded == nil)
      self.encoder = nil
      raise NoEncodersSucceededError,
        "#{pinst.refname}: All encoders failed to encode.",
        caller
    end

  # If there are no bad characters, then the raw is the same as the
  # encoded
  else
    # NOTE: BadChars can contain whitespace, so don't use String#blank?
    unless reqs['BadChars'].nil? || reqs['BadChars'].empty?
      ilog("#{pinst.refname}: payload contains no badchars, skipping automatic encoding", 'core', LEV_0)
    end

    # Space = 0 is a special value used by msfvenom to generate the smallest
    # payload possible. In that case do not raise an exception indicating
    # that the payload is too large.
    if reqs['Space'] && reqs['Space'] > 0 && reqs['Space'] < raw.length + min
      wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Raw (unencoded) payload is too large (#{raw.length} bytes)", 'core', LEV_1)
      raise PayloadSpaceViolation, 'The payload exceeds the specified space', caller
    end

    self.encoded = raw
  end

  # Prefix the prepend encoder value
  self.encoded = (reqs['PrependEncoder'] || '') + self.encoded
  self.encoded << (reqs['AppendEncoder'] || '')
end

#encoded_exe(opts = {}) ⇒ Object

Convert the payload to an executable appropriate for its arch and platform.

opts are passed directly to Msf::Util::EXE.to_executable

see Msf::Exploit::EXE



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 399

def encoded_exe(opts={})
  # Ensure arch and platform are in the format that to_executable expects
  if opts[:arch] and not opts[:arch].kind_of? Array
    opts[:arch] = [ opts[:arch] ]
  end
  if (opts[:platform].kind_of? Msf::Module::PlatformList)
    opts[:platform] = opts[:platform].platforms
  end

  emod = pinst.assoc_exploit if pinst.respond_to? :assoc_exploit

  if emod
    if (emod.datastore["EXE::Custom"] and emod.respond_to? :get_custom_exe)
      return emod.get_custom_exe
    end
    # This is a little ghetto, grabbing datastore options from the
    # associated exploit, but it doesn't really make sense for the
    # payload to have exe options if the exploit doesn't need an exe.
    # Msf::Util::EXE chooses reasonable defaults if these aren't given,
    # so it's not that big of an issue.
    opts.merge!({
      :template_path => emod.datastore['EXE::Path'],
      :template => emod.datastore['EXE::Template'],
      :inject => emod.datastore['EXE::Inject'],
      :fallback => emod.datastore['EXE::FallBack'],
      :sub_method => emod.datastore['EXE::OldMethod']
    })
    # Prefer the target's platform/architecture information, but use
    # the exploit module's if no target specific information exists.
    opts[:platform] ||= emod.target_platform  if emod.respond_to? :target_platform
    opts[:platform] ||= emod.platform         if emod.respond_to? :platform
    opts[:arch] ||= emod.target_arch          if emod.respond_to? :target_arch
    opts[:arch] ||= emod.arch                 if emod.respond_to? :arch
  end
  # Lastly, try the payload's. This always happens if we don't have an
  # associated exploit module.
  opts[:platform] ||= pinst.platform if pinst.respond_to? :platform
  opts[:arch] ||= pinst.arch         if pinst.respond_to? :arch

  Msf::Util::EXE.to_executable(framework, opts[:arch], opts[:platform], encoded, opts)
end

#encoded_jar(opts = {}) ⇒ Object

Generate a jar file containing the encoded payload.

Uses the payload's generate_jar method if it is implemented (Java payloads should all have it). Otherwise, converts the payload to an executable and uses Msf::Util::EXE.to_jar to create a jar file that dumps the exe out to a random file name in the system's temporary directory and executes it.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 450

def encoded_jar(opts={})
  return pinst.generate_jar(opts) if pinst.respond_to? :generate_jar

  opts[:spawn] ||= pinst.datastore["Spawn"]

  Msf::Util::EXE.to_jar(encoded_exe(opts), opts)
end

#encoded_war(opts = {}) ⇒ Object

Similar to encoded_jar but builds a web archive for use in servlet containers such as Tomcat.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 462

def encoded_war(opts={})
  return pinst.generate_war(opts) if pinst.respond_to? :generate_war

  Msf::Util::EXE.to_jsp_war(encoded_exe(opts), opts)
end

#generate(raw = nil) ⇒ String

This method generates the full encoded payload and returns the encoded payload buffer.

Returns:

  • (String)

    The encoded payload.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 44

def generate(raw = nil)
  self.raw           = raw
  self.encoded       = nil
  self.nop_sled_size = 0
  self.nop_sled      = nil
  self.encoder       = nil
  self.nop           = nil

  # Increase thread priority as necessary.  This is done
  # to ensure that the encoding and sled generation get
  # enough time slices from the ruby thread scheduler.
  priority = Thread.current.priority

  if (priority == 0)
    Thread.current.priority = 1
  end

  begin
    # First, validate
    pinst.validate()

    # Propagate space information when set
    unless self.space.nil?
      # Tell the payload how much space is available
      pinst.available_space = self.space
      # Reserve 10% of the available space if encoding is required
      pinst.available_space -= (self.space * 0.1).ceil if needs_encoding
    end

    # Generate the raw version of the payload first
    generate_raw() if self.raw.nil?

    # If encoder is set, it could be an encoders list
    # The form is "<encoder>:<iteration>, <encoder2>:<iteration>"...
    unless reqs['Encoder'].blank?
      encoder_str = reqs['Encoder']
      encoder_str.scan(/([^:, ]+):?([^,]+)?/).map do |encoder_opt|
        reqs['Encoder'] = encoder_opt[0]

        self.iterations = (encoder_opt[1] || reqs['Iterations']).to_i
        self.iterations = 1 if self.iterations < 1

        # Encode the payload with every encoders in the list
        encode()
        # Encoded payload is now the raw payload to be encoded by the next encoder
        self.raw = self.encoded
      end
    else
      self.iterations = reqs['Iterations'].to_i
      self.iterations = 1 if self.iterations < 1
      # No specified encoder, let BadChars or ForceEncode do their job
      encode()
    end

    # Build the NOP sled
    generate_sled()

    # Finally, set the complete payload definition
    self.encoded = (self.nop_sled || '') + self.encoded
  ensure
    # Restore the thread priority
    Thread.current.priority = priority
  end

  # Return the complete payload
  return encoded
end

#generate_rawString

Generates the raw payload from the payload instance. This populates the #raw attribute.

Returns:

  • (String)

    The raw, unencoded payload.



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 117

def generate_raw
  self.raw = (reqs['Prepend'] || '') + pinst.generate_complete + (reqs['Append'] || '')

  # If an encapsulation routine was supplied, then we should call it so
  # that we can get the real raw payload.
  if reqs['EncapsulationRoutine']
    self.raw = reqs['EncapsulationRoutine'].call(reqs, raw)
  end
end

#generate_sledObject

Construct a NOP sled if necessary



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 306

def generate_sled
  min   = reqs['MinNops'] || 0
  space = reqs['Space']
  pad_nops = reqs['PadNops']

  self.nop_sled_size = min

  # Calculate the number of NOPs to pad out the buffer with based on the
  # requirements.  If there was a space requirement, check to see if
  # there's any room at all left for a sled.
  if ((space) and
     (space > encoded.length))
    self.nop_sled_size = reqs['Space'] - self.encoded.length
  end

  # If the maximum number of NOPs has been exceeded, wrap it back down.
  if ((reqs['MaxNops']) and
     (reqs['MaxNops'] < self.nop_sled_size))
    self.nop_sled_size = reqs['MaxNops']
  end

  # Check for the DisableNops setting
  self.nop_sled_size = 0 if reqs['DisableNops']

  # Check for the PadNops setting
  self.nop_sled_size = (pad_nops - self.encoded.length) if reqs['PadNops']

  # Now construct the actual sled
  if (self.nop_sled_size > 0)
    nops = pinst.compatible_nops

    # If the caller had a preferred nop, try to find it and prefix it
    if ((reqs['Nop']) and
        (preferred = framework.nops[reqs['Nop']]))
      nops.unshift([reqs['Nop'], preferred ])
    elsif (reqs['Nop'])
      wlog("#{pinst.refname}: Failed to find preferred nop #{reqs['Nop']}")
    end

    nops.each { |nopname, nopmod|
      # Create an instance of the nop module
      self.nop = nopmod.new

      # Propagate options from the payload and possibly exploit
      self.nop.share_datastore(pinst.datastore)

      # The list of save registers
      save_regs = (reqs['SaveRegisters'] || []) + (pinst.save_registers || [])

      if (save_regs.empty? == true)
        save_regs = nil
      end

      begin
        nop.copy_ui(pinst)
        self.nop_sled = nop.generate_sled(self.nop_sled_size,
          'BadChars'      => reqs['BadChars'],
          'SaveRegisters' => save_regs)

        if nop_sled && nop_sled.length == nop_sled_size
          break
        else
          dlog("#{pinst.refname}: Nop generator #{nop.refname} failed to generate sled for payload", 'core', LEV_1)
        end
      rescue
        dlog("#{pinst.refname}: Nop generator #{nop.refname} failed to generate sled for payload: #{$!}",
          'core', LEV_1)

        self.nop = nil
      end
    }

    if (self.nop_sled == nil)
      raise NoNopsSucceededError,
        "#{pinst.refname}: All NOP generators failed to construct sled for.",
        caller
    end
  else
    self.nop_sled = ''
  end

  return self.nop_sled
end

#has_chars?(chars) ⇒ Boolean (protected)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 544

def has_chars?(chars)
  # NOTE: BadChars can contain whitespace, so don't use String#blank?
  if chars.nil? || chars.empty?
    return false
  end

  # payload hasn't been set yet but we have bad characters so assume they'll need to be encoded
  return true if self.raw.nil?

  return false if self.raw.empty?

  chars.each_byte do |bad|
    return true if self.raw.index(bad.chr(::Encoding::ASCII_8BIT))
  end

  false
end

#needs_encodingObject (protected)



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 540

def needs_encoding
  !reqs['Encoder'].blank? || reqs['ForceEncode'] || has_chars?(reqs['BadChars'])
end

#platformObject

An array containing the platform(s) that this payload was made to run on



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# File 'lib/msf/core/encoded_payload.rb', line 480

def platform
  if pinst
    pinst.platform
  end
end